Destructive testing

    Tensile strength test Tensile test is a basic and most frequently used test for metal materials. The is done by extending the normalized sample in opposite directions with constant load until sample breaks down. During the test, a strength F [N] to length of the sample ΔL [mm] graph is drawn, so we can determine the basic parameters of the material properties (or welded joint) such as: Z sample stress,% elongation A Tensile strength Fm [N], tensile strength Rm (MPa), yield strength ReH (MPa), proof Rp [MPa].

    We make a static tesile test according to standards:
    PN-EN ISO 6892-1 2016-09
    PN-EN 876-1999P
    PN-EN 4136:2013-05E

    Bend test of metals and welded joints Bend test is performed to determine the mechanical properties of the material, define the plasticity of the steel products and to detect the defects of welded joints. The test consists in bending a properly prepared specimen until the appropriate angle (120° according to PN-EN ISO 15614-1 standard) is reached or a crack exceeding 20% of the specimen width, but with a minimum length of 5 mm, occurs. The diameter of the bending roll depends of thickness of the tested material. This test is also used as a performance trial.

    Bend test is performed in compliance with PN-EN ISO 7438:2016-03 standard

    Fracture testFracture test is a performance trial consisting in breaking the test specimen to examine the fracture and determining the quality of the weld penetration (welding incompatibilities). Fracture test is performed on universal testing machine by gradually applying load to the welded joint until it breaks. This test is particularly important for the welders’ examinations, it is one of the more frequently used tests for this purpose.

    Fracture test is performed in compliance with PN-EN 9017:2014-01 standard.

    Hardness test of metals and welded joints Hardness test consists in deforming the surface of the specimen with a suitable indenter, followed by a measurement of the resulting imprint, which varies in size depending on the material. The most common methods of hardness testing are Vickers, Rockwell and Brinell tests.

    Measurement of hardness in welding is particularly important since it allows to assess whether the material is over-hardened in places exposed to high temperatures. This test is performed on appropriately prepared metallographic specimens so that precise imprints measurements can be executed in the designated joint zones.

    Hardness test is performed in compliance with:
    PN-EN ISO 6507-1:2007P standard – Vickers method
    PN-EN ISO 6508-1:2016-10 standard – Rockwell method
    PN-EN 6506-1:2014-12 standard – Brinell method
    PN-EN ISO 9015-1:2011E standard – Requirements for the hardness tests of the welded joints (Vickers method).

    Impact test of metals and welded jointsImpact strength is defined as the property of fracturing under dynamic load. An important factor in impact tests is the test temperature. Impact test are performed both at ambient temperature and in lower values (up to -196°C). Typically, the drop in test temperature will increase brittleness of the material.

    The tests are performed on standardized V or U notched specimens and with various beaters (with a 2mm diameter tip for ISO and 8mm diameter tip for ASTM). After the test the quality of fracture is assessed in some cases.

    Impact test is performed in compliance with PN-EN ISO 148-2:2009E and ASTM E23 standards

    Metallographic examination of welded jointsIn order to detect welding defects and incompatibilities in the microstructure of welded joints, macroscopic and microscopic examinations are performed. The tests are made on appropriately prepared specimens (grinded, polished, etched) on the cross section of the weld. Precise geometrical measurements of the welded joint cross section are essential for the proper quality assessment of the joint. Hence, such measurements are performed with the aid of stereoscopic microscope allowing the measurements by means of specially designed software. The quality assessment of welds in micro and macrostructure is performed by the experienced and qualified personnel of Tenslab Laboratory.

    Metallographic test is performed in compliance with PN-EN ISO 17639:2013-12A standard.

    Measurement of ferrite content From the constructor’s point of view, the ferrite content is an important feature of steel materials. Too low or too high ferrite content can affect the properties of materials, such as strength, corrosion resistance or weld cracking at high temperatures (duplex steels). Surface method of ferrite content measurement with the ferritoscope is based on the principle of measuring the magnetics properties of the material. Measurements are performed on appropriately purified specimens. Our company is equipped with ferriteoscope allowing the measurement of the ferrite content measurement in the Laboratory as well as in the field. The second method of testing the content of ferrite in steel is the microscopic method. It consists of the appropriate preparation of the metallographic specimen for analysis of the microstructure, its observation under a metallographic microscope and the measurement of the visible content of ferrite on the analyzed surface of the test specimen.

    Measurement of ferrite content is performed in compliance with ASTM E562 ISO 17655 standard

    Surface roughness measurementRoughness measurements are performed with specially designed device. Roughness is one of the important characteristics of metal surfaces, especially when the tested elements have previously been subjected to mechanical or thermal treatment (e.g. thermal cutting). The roughness test allows to determine the basic parameters of the surface, such as: arithmetical mean deviation of the profile from the Ra line and height of roughness in relation to ten points of the profile – Rz.

    Our test offer compliant to EN 1090 includes:
    Examination the usefulness of thermal cutting process in compliance with EN 1090
    Examination the usefulness of flame straightening in compliance with EN 1090
    Geometric measurements of drilled holes in compliance with EN 1090

    Chemical composition test We perform the chemical composition test of the steel on a mobile OES spark spectrometer. This method consists in exciting the tested material with the spark, and the subsequent analysis of the obtained spectrum of radiation. Our testing devices are equipped with software for testing structural steels, stainless steels, cast irons, copper alloys, titanium, nickel, cobalt and aluminum. The range of the examined elements includes both metallic and non-metal elements (carbon, phosphorus, sulfur and nitrogen). Our device allows the precise analysis of the chemical composition both in Laboratory, on the constructions sites or in the production facilities. The device is equipped with two probes for testing, one for general analysis of steel and non-ferrous materials, the other for precise analysis of steel chemical composition and contained impurities.

    In order to ensure the highest quality of service, we perform a device verification on certified reference (CRM) before each test. We perform the analysis according to our own procedure and in compliance with PN-H-04045: 1997 standard and our own test procedure.

    Corrosion testCorrosion tests are performed to find out how a given metal or welded joint behaves if exposed to a corrosive environment. Corrosion tests are performed in compliance with the following standards:
    ASTM G48
    ASTM A262-02
    NORSOK M-601
    PN-EN ISO 3651-1:2004P
    PN-EN ISO 3651-2:2004P
Non-Destructive testing

    Visual testing VTThe visual testing of the welded joints (VT) is the basic way of controlling any kind of construction. Visual testing is defined as the activity leading to pinpointing and assessing any incompatibilities appearing on the surface of the tested object. We visually test the welds, rolled products and forgings for their compliance with the standards or client specification.

    Liquid penetrant inspection (PT), also called dye penetrant inspection (DPI) allows to detect surface defects on any kind of material and product. This method is used mostly for non-ferromagnetic materials, mainly alloy steels and aluminum alloys. The best results can be obtained for smooth, non-porous materials, such as rolled, wrought and drawn materials. A thorough cleaning of the tested surface from all kinds of impurities (such as rust or grease) is required before the examination. Even the thinnest layer of paint makes the test impossible. It is possible to test the tightness of a specimen using the dye penetrant inspection method. During the examination we always use agents from renowned producers, also in tests performed in temperatures below 0ºC.

    The magnetic particle testing (MT) or magnetic particle inspection) (MPI) allows to detect surface as well as subsurface (as deep as 2 mm beneath the surface) defects in ferromagnetic materials. This method is most widely used for the detection of surface defects in steel constructions. Magnetic particle testing does not require as diligent surface preparation as dye penetrant inspection. Any coating which does not exceed 50 µm including the MT primer is acceptable for the testing.

    Magnetic particle testing can be performed in white light and in ultra violet light (using UV translates into greater sensitivity of the examination) Typically, this method is used for the examination of welded joints, forgings (e.g. crank shafts, propeller and intermediate shafts, rudder stocks, connecting rods, propeller parts) and castings (e.g. rudder hangings, engine cases, bearing casing) during manufacturing as well as in maintenance.

    Radiographic Testing RTRadiographic testing (RT, X-ray) allows the detection of inner volume defects (lack of penetration, porosity, slag inclusion) in all kinds of materials. Most often x-ray examination is used for materials such as steel, aluminum alloys and copper. It is mostly used for testing butt welds in flat and pipe elements.

    We are able to x-ray steel materials with the maximal thickness up to 50 mm. During the X-ray tests, due to the harmful effects of radiation, other workers have to leave the tested area.

    Ultrasonic testing UTThe ultrasonic testing method (UT) is mostly used to detect inconsistencies within metal welded joints, steel castings, molds from ductile cast iron, forgings, plastically altered goods such as: metal sheets, rods, I-beams. It is a very good method to detect flat defects such as cracks, delaminations, lack of penetration or lack of fusion.

    Ultrasonic testing is one of the most commonly used testing methods in floating and grounded structures construction industry and in testing machine parts. This is caused by its relatively low price and quick results in comparison to x-ray testing. The client receives the results immediately after the control. We use only the equipment provided by the best European and American producers for ultrasonic testing.

    Apart from the basic ultrasonic tests performed by echo technique we use the ever more popular ultrasonic techniques of Phased Array and TOFD.
Mechanical treatment of specimens

We run a mechanical treatment department allowing the precise cutting and mechanical machining of specimens.

Heat treatment
OBRÓBKA CIEPLNAHeat treatment is performed in the dedicated chamber furnace with the following parameters:
Dimensions of heating chamber 400 W x 320 H x 600
Maximum heat treatment temperature: 1250 °C
Possibility to program any heat cycle
Data logging capability and t / h plot

SNIEZNA 5 street , 80-554 GDAŃSK
phone. : +48 58 380 86 00
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PHONE: +48 608 697 993

Construction Park, room 0.09 
ul. Czechosłowacka 3, 81-336 Gdynia, Poland 
phone. : +48 58 573 38 29
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Calibration Laboratory:
Construction Park 
CZECHOSŁOWACKA 3 street , 81-336 GDYNIA 
TEL. : +48 58 380 06 44
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